Lesson 4
Lesson 3 Exercises / Courses / Lambdin. Introduction to Sahidic Coptic / Lesson 4 Lesson 4 Vocabulary

Lesson 4

4.1 Pronominal possession is indicated by inserting a bound form of the appropriate pronoun between the definite article and the noun so modified. It is best to learn the forms, i.e. the article plus the pronoun, as a unit:

 

 

 

masc. sing. noun

 

fem. sing. noun

sg.

1 com.

ⲡⲁⲉⲓⲱⲧ

my father

ⲧⲁⲙⲁⲁⲩ

my mother

 

2 masc.

ⲡⲉⲕⲉⲓⲱⲧ

your father

ⲧⲉⲕⲙⲁⲁⲩ

your mother

 

2 fem.

ⲡⲟⲩⲉⲓⲱⲧ

your father

ⲧⲟⲩⲙⲁⲁⲩ

your mother

 

3 masc.

ⲡⲉϥⲉⲓⲱⲧ

his father

ⲧⲉϥⲙⲁⲁⲩ

his mother

 

3 fem.

ⲡⲉⲥⲉⲓⲱⲧ

her father

ⲧⲉⲥⲙⲁⲁⲩ

her mother

pl.

1 com.

ⲡⲉⲛⲉⲓⲱⲧ

our father

ⲧⲉⲛⲙⲁⲁⲩ

our mother

 

2 com.

ⲡⲉⲧⲛ/ⲉⲓⲱⲧ

your father

ⲧⲉⲧⲛ/ⲙⲁⲁⲩ

your mother

 

3 com.

ⲡⲉⲩⲉⲓⲱⲧ

their father

ⲧⲉⲩⲙⲁⲁⲩ

their mother

 

plural noun (my brothers, etc.)

 

 

 

sg.

1 com.

ⲛⲁⲥⲛⲏⲩ

 

2 masc.

ⲛⲉⲕⲥⲛⲏⲩ

 

2 fem.

ⲛⲟⲩⲥⲛⲏⲩ

 

3 masc.

ⲛⲉϥⲥⲛⲏⲩ

 

3 fem.

ⲛⲉⲥⲥⲛⲏⲩ

pl.

1 com.

ⲛⲉⲛⲥⲛⲏⲩ

 

2 com.

ⲛⲉⲧⲛ̄ⲥⲛⲏⲩ

 

3 com.

ⲛⲉⲩⲥⲛⲏⲩ

 

Note that there is a gender distinction in the second and third persons of the singular but not of the plural. This is characteristic of all pronominal paradigms in Coptic. The term "common" (com.) refers to forms or categories where no gender distinction is made.

 

4.2       The nearer demonstrative "this" is expressed by the forms

masc. sing. ⲡⲉⲓ-                       

fem. sing. ⲧⲉⲓ-             

com. pl. ⲛⲉⲓ-

prefixed directly to the noun:

ⲡⲉⲓⲣⲱⲙⲉ           this man

ⲧⲉⲓⲥϩⲓⲙⲉ           this woman

ⲛⲉⲓⲥⲛⲏⲩ                        these brothers

After a noun with a demonstrative adjective the genitive is usually expressed by ⲛ̄ⲧⲉ, as in ⲡⲉⲓϫⲱⲱⲙⲉ ⲛ̄ⲧⲉ ⲡⲁⲥⲟⲛ this book of my brother(’s)

4.3       The pronominal element -ⲕⲉ- inserted between the article and the noun expresses "other":

ⲡⲕⲉⲣⲱⲙⲉ          the other man

ⲛ̄ⲕⲉⲣⲱⲙⲉ          the other men

The indefinite article is omitted in the singular but not in the plural:

ⲕⲉⲣⲱⲙⲉ            another man

ϩⲉⲛⲕⲉⲣⲱⲙⲉ      (some) other men

-ⲕⲉ- may also be used after demonstrative or possessive prefixes:

ⲡⲉⲓⲕⲉⲣⲱⲙⲉ       this other man

ⲡⲁⲕⲉϫⲟⲓ           my other ship

-ⲕⲉ- is not inflected for number or gender in this usage.